# Andrew Carter

Electrical Engineer

# Common Temperature Scales

Three temperature scales are commonly used in science and industry nowadays. These are the Celsius, Kelvin and Fahrenheit.

### Degree Celsius (0C)

The degree Celsius (°C) scale was created by separating the scale of temperature between the freezing and boiling temperatures point of pure water at normal atmospheric conditions or sea level pressure. into 100 equivalent parts. The unit was invented in 1742 by the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, it is from time to time called the centigrade scale because of the 100-degree interval between the defined on a specific points. The Celsius scale is in common use on metric units.

### Degree Kelvin (0K)

The degree Kelvin (0K) temperature scale is an expansion of the degree Celsius scale through to absolute zero or completely zero degree. Kelvin temperature scale is the standard unit of thermodynamic temperature measurement in the International System (SI) of measurement. It was named by William Thomson Baron Kelvin, a British physicist The Kelvin scale has been accepted as the international standard for scientific temperature measurement and calculation. The Kelvin scale is somewhat related to the Celsius scale, but the main difference is that between the freezing and boiling points of water is 100 degrees in each, because the Kelvin degree has the same scale as the degree Celsius.

### Degree Fahrenheit (0F)

During 18th-century German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit initially obtained as the zero of his scale the temperature of an equal ice-salt mixture and selected the values of 30 and 90 for the freezing point of water and normal body temperature, upon observing and studying, he found out that the values were revised to 32 and 96, but the final scale required an amendment to 98.6 for the latter value. Fahrenheit temperature scale is based on 32 for the freezing point of water and 212 for the boiling point of water, the interval between the two being divided into 180 parts.

Some baseline temperatures in the three common temperature scale.

#### Kelvin vs Celsius

Common comparisons between temperatures on the Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin scales.

### Converting Temperature

1. To convert from ºC to ºF, use the formula: ºF = ºC x 1.8 + 32.
2. To convert from ºF to ºC, use the formula: ºC = (ºF-32) ÷ 1.8.
3. To convert from K to ºC, use the formula: ºC = K – 273.15
4. To convert from ºC to K, use the formula: K = ºC + 273.15.
5. To convert from ºF to K, use the formula: K = 5/9 (ºF – 32) + 273.15.
6. To convert from K to ºF, use the formula: ºF = 1.8(K – 273.15) + 32

Examples:

1. Convert 100 degrees Fahrenheit to Celsius:
C = (F -32) x 5/9
C= (100-32) x 5/9
C= 37.78

2. Convert 40 degrees Celsius to Kelvin:
K = C + 273.15
K = 40 + 273.15
K = 313.15

Tags: Celsius, Kelvin, Fahrenheit