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Building The Simple Dynamic Balance Vehicle
A high impedance motor with a 62:1 epicyclic gearbox is the exotic component used in building this dynamically balanced vehicle.
The design of the project maximizes torque by using a wheel just slightly bigger than the motor body since the correcting force must be applied at the end of the dowel. Without exerting any steering force, the un-driven wheel provides sideways balance. A 4ft dowel was used successfully since it works without the sail. It is free to pivot around the axle with very little friction since the artificial horizon is a piece of card half black half white bolted to another piece which rests on the ground like a skid.
A Toshiba high-brightness LED is used for the photo-electric eye along with a 5mm high impedance LDR looking at the spot of light created by the LED where the change is sensed from white to black. Either with a relay of with a driver IC, this will reverse the motor somehow. The balance arm provides the fine adjustment while the artificial horizon is for the coarse adjustment. The wheel will not slip by putting batteries on the vehicle.